I am thankful for this opportunity for sharing some thoughts in this issue of Remainder[1] to commemorate the 400th anniversary of the first installation of Pothi Sahib, now called Granth Sahib, at the Golden Temple in Amritsar. Tradition has it that when the Pothi was installed and the first random reading called mukh vak was taken, the message was – God Himself has always stood by the mission of His devotees and lent His active support in their endeavors.[2] I see this initiative by Remainder as an extension of the same blessing.

Granth contains the writings of the Sikh Gurus themselves authenticated by the fifth Guru and the texts have not been modified or altered in any manner since their writing. The compositions are written in poetic format and set to music organized not by themes or authors but per musical measures. The contents are songs in praise of God written in spoken language of the people in the region, with the pearls of divine wisdom scattered in lyrical metaphors from life. Considering that the Gurus lived and preached in times when the population consisted of Hindus, Muslims and those who were treated as low castes, the metaphor used in the text often refers to these categories. The message undoubtedly is intended for all people.


There are certain features associated with the Granth that make it unique among religious scriptures. Firstly it is possibly the only sacred religious text which contains compositions of holy persons from other faiths who believed in and practiced faithfully their own traditions. The texts included are those written by six Sikh Gurus plus several Hindu, Muslim and Shudra saints of the time period between 12th and 17th century from various parts of India including Bengal, Uttar Pardesh, Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Sindh and Punjab.

Next it is also considered the first scripture of the world that is respectful of the dignity and honor of all [not of selective some] faiths and their sacred texts. Guru Arjan, who compiled the text of the Granth, says – you get a vision of God in Vedas, Puranas and Simritees [Hindu sacred texts]; you get it in the moon, the sun and the stars; all His revelations are the unwavering God’s word that is addressed to the entire mankind; not exclusively to some.[3] Bhagat Kabir intones all not to think of Vedas and Kateb [sacred texts belonging to Semitic faiths – Bible, Torah, Quran] as untrue for falseness lies in the inability of those who cannot ponder over and grasp the truths enshrined in them.[4]  Nanak says in another context that reading and pondering over them, as one understands their four doctrines, the four Vedas have proved to be true.[5]

Recognizing the multiplicity of paths Ram Das says that the treasure of devotion to God is overflowing, infinite and beyond measure and God’s devotees praise Him in various and countless ways – – – and of all devotees [variously trying to reach God] sublime are those whose devotion is pleasing to God.[6] The emphasis is clearly on the quality of devotion rather than its manner or path; be it worship, disciplined meditation or chanting prayers.

Amar Das also tells us that even though the savants and sages may speak in response to specific situations their teachings are the shared heritage of all mankind.[7] Underpinning the same sentiment of shared heritage is the fact of referring to the contents of the Granth as – sarab sanjhi gurbani – universally shared God’s word revealed through the Gurus. Thus beneath their strong sense of reverence for the Granth, Sikhs have an underlying sentiment of humble acceptance that theirs is a revelation shared and to be shared with one and all.

Bringing together such an anthology of sacred texts containing writings by followers of different persuasions has its own hazards. Scriptures are intended to guide the believers and must necessarily reflect a strand of consistent thought. There are therefore instances where the Gurus wrestled with such choices in their endeavor and Granth is a witness to the degree of sensitivity Gurus displayed when they felt a need to clarify or moderate the message by poets of other faiths in the context of their own teachings. The Gurus in such instances have commented on or appended an observation on the writing immediately following the text concerned.  An example or two will make the nature of such comments clear and also provide an indication of the tolerant, respectful and constructive approach used.

Kabir in his saloks laments – Kabir, what can my wanting or thinking achieve for God does not respond to my desires; He does whatever He likes – things that are far from my thoughts. To this Amar Das has added a comment saying God is the One who creates in us worries and is also the dispeller of our anxieties; He cares for us all and let us therefore sing His praises.[8] In another example Farid says – O Farid, I used to think that I alone had problems but as I developed greater understanding, I realized that suffering afflicts all homes and families. Seemingly sensing a mood of despair, Arjan added the comment – Farid, in the midst of this beautiful world there is a clump of thorny bushes but those who have God’s blessings suffer not a scratch going through life.[9] A buoyant feeling is thus restored in both instances.

This backdrop would indicate that Sikhism is open to the thought that there can be and are several paths to reach the Divine. The critical determinant of being able to connect with God is not the path but understanding and fidelity of the devotee to the principles of the path. Similar persuasion flows also from the Sikh understanding of belief in One God, common to and shared by all. Arjan says that once the illusion is lifted off one’s mind by the Guru’s teaching, realization comes that God may be addressed as Allah or Parbrahm; both are one and the same.[10] Not just that, as Nanak says in another place, in fact if one were to be able to really grasp the truth, one would recognize that with one Creator, unchanged over the ages, mankind has only one religion.[11]

What could be the characteristics of such a shared universal and inclusive persuasion? The Gurus have addressed that at several places in different contexts; witness a couple. Nanak reminds the Yogi that true religiosity consists not in mere talking but considering each one alike and treating them as equals.[12] Arjan sums it up saying that loving devotion of God and living a virtuous life is the most exalted expression of religiosity. [13]

God is the shared father of all humanity.[14] He besides being the sole creator, sustainer and destroyer has the attributes of being just, kind, compassionate, forgiving, loving, friendly and protective of the virtuous. This concept is put even more assertively by Ravidas saying that God cannot be claimed to be the exclusive Sire of any person or sect; He belongs to all those who love Him.[15] In keeping with the same strain of thought we are also persuaded that humans were not created as Hindus or Muslims or for that matter belonging to any faith or tradition – verily all our bodies and souls emanate from one God alone.[16]

The transcendent and immanent in God is reconciled by considering the creation a result of divine self-revelation – partial, not that God’s being is exhausted in the world alone. The creation is real but is constantly changing and in that sense it becomes illusory – maya. God has created diversity in nature with a purpose. Even though man is the highest form of creation, God created and gave specific roles to all the diverse beings. Man has been given the ability to use the resources in creation for his purposes but must remember that God is happy with what He has created, loves it and looks at it joyfully. Respect for balance in creation and treating it as a shared gift of God to all the beings informs the Sikh thought on issues confronting mother earth.

On terra firma, the Granth does give a couple of visions of the ideal human society. One by Ravidas says that the name of such an ideal place is ‘land sans grief.  In that place there is no suffering nor are there anxieties, hardships, or levies. None causes fear, blemish or failure of others.  That marvelous place [home now to Ravidas] enjoys ever-lasting peace and safety; is orderly and stable, overseen by God.  The populace is all equal, none high or low and people always well spoken. Their bodies in comfort, minds contented, people freely stroll about where they like and no one blocks their entry to the Lord’s abode.[17] Clearly a poignant reflection of the ideal has been envisioned by the Shudra saint who may have endured a lot of discrimination in his everyday life.

Another hymn indicative of a vision of serene social setting by Arjan says that God has commanded that no one will trouble or cause pain to another and all will live in peace and harmony in this domain of just and modest rule – halemi raj. [Living thus] God has liberated us all and we will no more have to struggle against disruptive forces trying to bring destruction and desolation to our inner self [body village].[18] Undoubtedly both the visions capture the core of human yearning – to be able to live a life of piety in peace, harmony, safety and security among caring and sharing people.

Incarnation as a human being is considered a unique opportunity for the soul to unite with the divine. Sikhism therefore stresses for man to strive to achieve this sublime objective in this life even as living a full life – active, responsible, sharing, serving, caring and praying – totally committed to God’s divine purpose that essentially calls for being a part of rather than withdrawn from God’s manifest play. The highest goal is – jiwan mukta – liberated while alive, achieved by completely subordinating the individual willfulness – haumain – to the divine will. It is accepting a position of utter humility before God, love for and service of others, earning through honest endeavor and sharing God given bounty and staying in constant communion with the divine even as engaged in the mundane. The essence of control over individual will is not to lose the ability to act. On the other hand one must be able to energize and direct one’s motivation to do what is right and not shirk from defending righteous causes, the weak and oppressed in an inclusive non-sectarian sense.

Equality before God of all humans is another important facet of inclusiveness of the Sikh faith. Traditionally the Indian society had been divided for centuries before along caste lines. One unfortunate aspect of this division had been that the lowest caste grouping was not even given the hope of salvation or liberation in their life unless they were to be born again in a higher caste group. The Gurus rejecting this notion declared that any one who heeds [and lives by] Nanak’s teaching of devotion to the Lord’s name can swim across the ocean separating the mortal from the divine – be he Khatri, Brahmin, Vaish or Shudra.[19] Likewise the Gurus also proclaimed that such is the glory of [teachings of] the True Guru that men and women alike, living their lives as householders, can attain emancipation in the midst of children and spouses.[20] Extending the concept of equality to the societal setting Nanak says that we should realize that all of us seek shelter under God and are God’s own people as such let us not think of one another in terms of high, middle or low class or caste.[21] In the same strain Kabir says that we, nay all the creation, have emanated from the same light that God created – who are we to judge others as high or low.[22] Nanak in fact goes far enough to say that to him none seems low; rather each one is noble for all are fashioned by the same potter and in each God’s noble light shines.[23]

That the quality of human behavior is considered the hallmark of a person’s religiosity is evident from Nanak placing truthful living above truth itself. The quote earlier from Arjan also reinforces the same concept [op. cit 13]. The living ethic preached by the Gurus aims at making the individual a social being who is productive, sharing and constructively involved with others. Such an individual believes that all humans are part of the same fraternity, has animus against none and cultivates harmonious relations with one and all.[24] He is engaged with sangat – the community of devotees – that provides the anchor for his altruistic and spiritual pursuits. To this community all are welcome; none is excluded; and together they are all seeking Divine support to promote harmony and virtuous living among and around them. Engaged thus in active, yet altruistic and prayerful life, they are driven not by desire for recognition or wealth or even liberation but by the sheer intensity of their love for God[25] and if liberation comes to any of them, all associated with them will also get liberated.[26] Thus even the highest goal of liberation is not an individual accomplishment – it is shared with those who persevered with and facilitated the spiritual endeavor that received Divine approval – again a very unique concept of inclusive and collective human destiny.

The Gurus invariably prayed for the well being of one and all. Touched as they were by the sufferings and anxieties endured by the people, they were equally conscious that so much of discord and strife was caused in the name of promoting or protecting faith. Amar Das in his anguish pleads with God to shower His mercy and save this burning world through whichever door [path] it can be rescued.[27] Ram Das prays for God’s merciful consideration of his supplication for God’s blessings being showered on all beings in the world.[28] The daily Sikh prayers at homes and in Gurdwaras always end seeking that the well being of one and all be God’s merciful will.[29]

An exhaustive explication of the universal and inclusive in the Sikh teaching could be exhausting. My hope is that this brief analysis would indicate that notwithstanding its defined path, the Sikh theology has sufficient persuasive and consistent thought to promote the concept of a shared, inclusive and universal vision of the human destiny and living ethic. It enshrines within it all that we to day consider the fundamental human freedoms and rights so necessary for a fulfilling, meaningful life for each and every one of us. Let us now turn to Sikh historical experience to see the way these thoughts were shared through dialogue and other forms of engagements over the course of time.


Guru Nanak’s life is a continuous chronicle of engagement and dialogue with leaders of other traditions. In fact he undertook several long and arduous journeys to seek them out and engage with them. A few examples would suffice. The Granth itself records in the composition called sidh gosht, in Guru’s own words, [possibly youthful] Nanak’s conversations in a – sidh sabha – formal dialogical setting with Sidhas.[30] The Guru answers their questions and explains his concept that renunciation and austerities are not essential for achieving salvation. The style is easy, persuasive and marked by exploratory forays by the Yogis to gauge depth of Nanak’s thought and effort to persuade him to their ways. It is almost a model of classic theological discussion.

Another example seems to be two consecutive hymns by Nanak that end saying – kaho nanak sun bhartar jogi — says Nanak, listen Bhartari Jogi in Asa. The purport of the hymns is to explain Nanak’s beliefs and persuasion in juxtaposition to the yogi’s path. The second hymn ends expounding that the person who is imbued with the love of Lord’s praises is the one who is the model of renunciation, the path of the yogi. Nanak therefore asks the Yogi, that he too should imbibe the Lord’s intoxicating nectar so that the purpose of his life [to achieve deliverance] is not lost playing the stakes of struggle in the process of living.[31] The style is engaging, vividly remonstrative of Nanak’s love of nam, at once reaching the inner conscious of the listener.

There are a number of chronicles of Nanak’s visits and his discussions with other faith traditions at Haridwar, Jagannath Puri, Mecca, Multan and several others places The story at Multan, a seat of Muslim divines goes that as Nanak approached the city, the Muslim saints sent him a glass filled to the brim with milk symbolizing that Mohammed being the last Prophet, Muslims saw no place or role for another preceptor. Nanak placed a jasmine petal on the milk and sent it back symbolizing that while they were welcome to their cup of milk his purpose was only to add some fragrance to it from his side. Needless to say that he was received with warmth. None of his encounters are recorded to have ever ended up in futile debate, argument or disrespectful disengagement. His life became an example of persuasive, direct, and easy to understand interactions with people of diverse persuasions and with different levels of awareness and temperament giving rise to the popular saying – nanak shah fakir hindu ka guru musalman ka pir – Nanak the king among God’s humble seekers, is Guru to Hindus and Pir to Muslims.

The succeeding Gurus carried this tradition forward. They continually engaged with the people and religious leaders of all persuasions in their missionaries. They opened their doors to all without any distinction and took positions on temporal issues of significance based on their righteous merits. Some of these positions exposed them to harsh responses leading to the martyrdom of the fifth and the ninth Masters but they did not deviate from the path of righteousness yet stayed open always to enter into a dialogue to alleviate societal tensions and to bring the erring to the path of love, prayer and compassionate living. It is significant that successor Gurus to those martyred did not evince resentment against the perpetrating Mughal rulers – nor did the tenth Master turn vindictive when his infant sons were walled in alive. Instead he sent his missive zafar nama to Aurangzeb which when read by the King made him repentant and he invited the Guru to meet with him. The Guru graciously accepted his invite and set out to Auragabad, a thousand miles to the South but Aurangzeb died while the Guru was on his way.

A chronicle going back to 1705 shows that the message of shared humanity and treating friend and foe alike was being imbibed by some. The Imperial army frequently invested Sikhs at Anandpur.  After a day of skirmishes as the weary sun was going down, an old Sikh, Kanhaiya was tending the wounded of both sides and ministering sips of water to the thirsty. Seeing this the Sikhs were upset and asked Guru Gobind Singh to stop Kanhaiya from comforting the enemy. The Guru asked them to call him and ask – why? Brought before the Guru, Kanhaiya humbly said ‘Lord you told us to recognize all human race as one.[32] When I go tending the wounded and I look at them I see your image in each of them. If you pervade in all, I see only you and no enemy!’

The institutions that the Gurus started also conveyed message of inclusive thought. None was excluded or not made welcome. No distinction was made because of reasons that were hitherto dividing or stratifying the society. Open entry to worship and community kitchen – langar – was an excellent example. Building of bathing pools with Gurdwaras and encouragement of sporting activities surrounding them were clear statements of importance of community hygiene and physical fitness. Association of women signaled involvement of children and families. The multi dimensional message thus expressed was that good, ethical, inclusive community living was conducive for spiritual progression. That there was virtuous merit in inclusive communal living caught the imagination of the people and became its own strong message of inclusiveness at a time when the other models seen were withdrawn, exclusive or elitist.

There are several other happenings in History that provide evidence of the inclusive doctrines in practice. The tradition has it that the progeny of Nanak’s companion Mardana continued to sing Guru’s hymns in Guru’s court for several generations. Arjan asked Mian Mir, a Sufi saint of Qadri silsila from Lahore to lay the corner stone of Harmandir Sahib. Guru Tegh Bahadur sacrificed his life willingly to protect the religious freedom of Hindus. Through the 18th century Sikhs waged a relentless struggle against foreign invaders whose sole purpose seemed to be to loot and kidnap hapless civilians – be they men, women or children. Maharaja Ranjit Singh for the first time in several centuries brought the turbulent frontier region under control stopping further invasions and thus enabling a more peaceful pursuit of life for the population in the region.

Whilst there is overwhelming evidence of the Gurus engaging with Hindus and Muslims, there are references in Granth or other chronicles of Gurus conversations with Buddhists, Jainas and several other sects current at the time. An early recorded account indicative of Christian-Sikh contact is by a Jesuit priest Fr Jerome Xavier who on Sep. 25, 1606 wrote from Lahore about Guru Arjan Dev’s murder by torture saying “In that way their good Pope died, overwhelmed by the suffering, torments and dishonors.” It is likely that over time more resources will come to light bringing greater clarity to the nature of such contacts and the perceptions flowing from them.

Sikh conversations with the Christians took more definitive shape as the British gained control over the Northern Indian plains. Maharaja Ranjit Singh, who ruled the area now mainly constituting Pakistan, is recorded to have invited the first American missionary, Rev. John C Lowrie from Philadelphia, who came to Ludhiana in 1834 for an audience with him at his court in Lahore for a discussion on Christian faith and beliefs. Subsequent to the British annexation of the Sikh kingdom in 1849 some initial attempts at European understanding of Sikhism e.g. by Dr Ernest Trumpp were superficial and seen by Sikhs as disparaging. Later at the turn of century Max Arthur Macauliffe produced his six volume account of Sikhism, its history, thought and translation of some compositions from Guru Granth Sahib that were considered well founded by the Sikhs. Over the last century there have been several attempts by missionaries, scholars, theologians, historians and others to engage with the Sikhs. Some of these efforts have been productive in promoting mutual respect and understanding but examples of judgmental commentaries are also not lacking.


Contemporaneously societies are getting increasingly polarized along religious, ethnic, linguistic, cultural and other differences. In this environment, minority segments often find themselves placed at high risk for remote acts associated with some in their group. As such creating empathetic awareness about various faiths has become an important necessity for ensuring peace, stability and harmony in mixed societies. Sikh experience has shown their acute vulnerability, underscoring importance of the need to create humane understanding about them and debunking their negative stereotypes. This is amply borne out by the problems faced by them in post Sep. 11 America as it was in the post ’84 India. Sikhs also could and did laugh over some stereotypes a few years back but today the same tit bits can unwittingly become tools for creating and increasing mistrust and prejudice.

That we have to work proactively and do more to try and create empathetic awareness about ourselves will be evident from some of the examples that follow. At a recent conference in Europe with multi faith participation an activist scholar from Germany told me that I was the first Sikh he had met in Dialogue. Vice Rector of Sofia University who had been friends with Ambassador Robeiro [Police Officer brought to Punjab in ‘80’s to control Sikh militancy], told me that even though he had visited India a couple of times and passed through Punjab to go to Dharamsala to pursue his special interest in the Tibetan Buddhist tradition he never had an encounter with Sikhs. A scholar from Indonesia came up to me and quizzed ‘Muslim?’ I said ‘No, Sikh.’ He again said ‘Hindu?’ I repeated ‘No, Sikh.’ We both were, no doubt, embarrassed by the way our conversation opened. I also am reminded of the comment by a Pakistani participant in a Lahore meeting that given that Sikhs are the fifth largest faith in the world – and given the origin of their faith in Pakistan – how come Pakistanis know so little about Sikhs and Sikhism.

It would be wrong to think that the picture is entirely bleak. There are positives to share too. Prabhakri Devi, Director, Vedic Foundation, Austin, Texas told me at a recent seminar at Rutgers University in New Jersey that she thought the Sikh response to the incidents of hate crimes against them post Sep. 11 was very restrained, dignified, thoughtful and seemed very well coordinated. Knowing that our response really came from the gut – there was no co-ordination – and if it was seen to be appropriate then we could justifiably take comfort in our individual as well as collective maturity; a gratifying yet humbling thought. Heidi Hadsell, President of Hartford Seminary told me how very impressed she was by the Sikh presence and altruistic food service for thousands of the delegates and visitors through the five day Barcelona World Religions Parliament earlier this year. Several people at Istanbul came up to me and said they were glad to meet me again after Barcelona – even though I had not been to the Parliament. But the visage I presented possibly corresponded to the favorable images left by those who were there.

My sense is that while there are some shining examples here and there the task is too large and too important to be just left to individual initiatives alone. We have to bring back the zeal and commitment of our Gurus and generations of Sikhs in the post-Guru period to continue to share the message of love, sharing and prayer with others. We seem to have become rather withdrawn and inwardly turned. At the same time it seems that, in the contemporary global setting, the major traditions possibly do not have any compelling reasons to engage with or to understand Sikhism [except in India]. Media, academia, scholars and theologians of other faiths have shown little inclination to invest time and effort to understand Sikhs or their faith. Sikhs also have displayed little potential to excite interest or curiosity by attention grabbing accomplishments or even negatively by rabble rousing or causing trouble.

With confluence of these factors Sikhs need to carefully and effectively use their limited resources to achieve more empathetic and meaningful engagement with the other. My sense after years of involvement in inter faith activity is that conversations to grasp and reconcile the doctrinal positions and historical experiences at various levels between the Semitic traditions have helped and there is a certain degree of optimism at the progress, albeit slow, that has been made. This mode of engagement does have certain limitations for non-Semitic faiths in the Diaspora. While some such conversations do take place within the cloistered environment of inter faith groups and committees, their impact on the way the lay people are informed about any tradition is very limited. We tend to be talking to the converted or ourselves. There is no mechanism that I have witnessed of getting the message of mutual respect and reassurance developed through these encounters out to the public to counter those who may be spreading prejudicial thoughts.

I would therefore suggest that the Diaspora Sikhs recognize that their need is likely to be answered better through an activist inter faith agenda. They should proactively associate with such initiatives that help bring empathetic awareness of the inclusive and universal in their belief system to the mainstream. In India we must seriously engage Hindus and Muslims in multi dimensional, multi level and multi disciplinary dialogue on the lines of Christian, Jewish and Muslim dialogue in the West. This is an urgent necessity in view of the continuing religious strife, deep sense of mutual mistrust and feeling of hurt nurtured by transmitted historical memory. The effort can progressively be extended to engage the other faiths.

We should also engage constructively alongside other faiths on issues that are of shared concern, wherever we are, at the community, national or global levels. At the same time we need to create or restructure existing organizations everywhere to be able to voice our views; protect our rights and rightful positions in the community; showcase our heritage and culture; and engage in and promote conversations to the extent we can. For doing this we will have to step outside of Gurdwaras; spot and nurture those who may be able to contribute to these endeavors; encourage them to make time to get involved and provide institutional support to launch and keep such initiatives going.


The Sikh experience over the last half century has had its share of successes and traumas. We have lived through the travails of ’47, ’84 and Sep.11 without losing proverbial élan so characteristic of us. The insular mode in which we find ourselves today is against our gregarious nature. Let us bring ourselves into our instinctively open, accepting, and inclusive way of life. Let us this anniversary, do what we can in spirit of true altruism and bring the message of prayer for well being of the entire creation enshrined in the Granth to as many as we can. Let us bring it to them in humility. Let us bring it to them in a manner they can relate to. Thus only the inclusive and universal in the Granth, the Guru’s engaging style, their vision of shared human heritage of wisdom and of – halemi raaj or be gam pura – a civil society rooted in justice, equality and liberty and governed by principles of empathy, understanding and modesty will have a chance to be more widely known, understood and may be some day reflected in the way people live their lives. 

Let us get therefore get constructively involved wherever we are in, whatever capacity we can and do something – and believe me there is a lot that needs done!


Farmington, CT.

Nov. 23, 2004

[1] ‘Remainder’ was the name of a Journal on Sikhism that a Hindu scholar, Munindra Singh, started around 2004. Munindra was deeply impressed by the concept of sant sipahi in Sikh thought and struggled for a few years in his endeavor. The support he received from the Sikh community was meager. Even subscriptions were very hard to come by. The Journal could not survive more than two or three issues that Munindra could somehow manage. We little realize that journals on Sikh studies have very small circulation, mostly running into a few hundreds, and no scholar can really risk either supporting their survival needs or urge for spreading the message of Sikhi on their own unless supported by some Institution who have access to some sources of funding.

[2]santa ke karaj aap khaloa har kam karavan aaya ram – [Suhi M V, p.783]

[3]bed puraan simrit meh dekh saseear soor nakhyathr meh ek baanee prabh kee sabh ko bolai aap addol n kabehoo dolai – [Gauri M V, p. 294]

[4] – bayd katayb kahau mat jhoothay jhoothaa jo na bichaarai – [Parbhati Kabir p.1350]

[5]chaaray ved hoey sachiaar parheh guneh tin chaar veechaar – [Asa, Slok M I p. 470]

[6]teri bhagath teri bhagath bhandar ji bharai beant  beanta, teri bhagath teri bhagath salaahan thudhh ji har anik anek ananta  – –  – se bhagath se bhagath bhale jan nanak ji jo bhavee mere har bhagavanta – [Asa M IV, So Purkh, p. 10].

[7]parthai sakhi maha purkh bolde sanjhi sagal jahanai – [M III, p.647]

[8]kabir jo main chitvo neh karai kya mere chitvai hoey, apna chitveya har karey jo mere chit neh hoey –– M III – chinta bhi aap karaeysi achint bhi aap karai, nanak so salahiey jeh sabhna saar karey –[Salok Kabir, p. 1376]

[9]farida main janeya dukh mujh koo dukh sabhaheey jag, ooche charh ke dekheya ghar ghar eha agg –  – M V – farida bhoom rangawali manjh visoola bagh, jo jan pir nivajeya tina anch neh laag –[Slok Farid, p. 1382]

[10]kaho nanak gur khoey bharam, eko alloh parbrahm – [Ramkali M V, p. 897]

[11]eko dharma dir-rhai sach koey, gurmat poora jug jug soey – [Basant M I, p. 1188]

[12]galee jog na hoee. ek darisat kar samsar jaanai jogee kaheeai soi – [Suhi M I, p. 730]

[13]sagal dharma main sresht dharma, har ka nam jap nirmal karam – [Gauri Sukhmani M V]

[14]toon sanjha sahib bap hamara – [Majh M V p. 97]

[15]aapan baapai naahin kisi ko bhavan ko har raja – [Sorath Ravidas p. 658]

[16]neh ham hindu neh musalman, allah ram kai pind pran – [Bhairon M V p. 1136]

[17]bey gam pura sehr ko nau  — – [Gauree Gwaarayree Ravidas, p.345]

[18]hun hukam hoa mehrvan da —-eh hoa halemi raj jio – [Sri Rag M V, p. 73]

[19]khatree baraahman sood vais sabh aykai naam taraanath. gur naanak updays kahat hai jo sunai so paar paraanath -[Maru M V, p. 1001]

[20]satgur kee aisee vadi-aa-ee. putar kaltar vichay gat paa-ee – [Dhanasri M I, p. 661]

[21] caste – aey ji neh ham uttam, neech neh madham, har sarnagat har ke log – [Gujri M I, p. 504]

[22]aval allah noor upaya kudrat ke sabh Bandai, ek noor te sabh jug upjeya kaun bhalai kon mandai – [Parbhati Kabir, p. 1349]

[23]sabh kau oocha akhiye neech neh deesai koey, ikna bhandai sajian ik channan the loey – [Siri Rag M I, p. 62]

[24]neh kau bairi nehin begana sagal sang hum ko ban aayee – [Kanra M V, p.1299]

[25]  – raj neh chahhon mukat neh chahoon man preet charan kamla re – [Dev Gandhari M V, p. 534]

[26]aap tare sagle kul taarey – [Dhanasri M I, p. 662]

[27]jagat jalanda rakh kai apni kirpa dhar, jit dwarai ubhrai tithai lai ubhar – [Bilawal M III, p.853]

[28]kirpa kar ke sunno prabh sabh jag mehn varsai meh – [Sorath M IV, p.652]

[29]tere bhanai sarbat ka bhala – Ardas

[30] Ramkali M I, p. 938

[31]siftee rataa sadh bairagee jooey janam neh haarai, kahau nanak sun bharthhar jogi kheevan amrit dharai [Asa M I, 37/38, p. 359/360]

[32]       ki jat sabh ekay pehchanbo – Dasam Granth

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