It was four hundred years back in 1606 that Guru Arjan, the fifth Sikh Guru was tortured to death.  He was a man of unmatched piety and compassion during whose ministry the nascent Sikh faith reached an enviable stage of growth and consolidation of its thought and institutions. In his extensive writings preserved in Guru Granth Sahib, he says at one place that “And now the beneficent Lord has ordained” envisioning how a society should be governed. It is not a clearly defined or concise paradigm of divinely ordained political dispensation but a mystic vision colored in deep spiritual hues of a temporal order where human endeavor may experience a peaceful and harmonious expression. There are only scant references to this prophetic saying in most of the Sikh writing. In one, Kapur Singh says that Guru Arjan — made the uncompromising declaration that —- “coercive rule of one people over another was against God’s will as now revealed to mankind through Sikhism, and all Governments, henceforth, should exercise power, through persuasion and mutual consent and not otherwise.”[1] My attempt is to explore and try to grasp the ingredients of the thought that the Guru seems to be conveying, no doubt within the bounds of my limited understanding and ability to take in the essence of the Guru’s teachings.


A recount of the times of early Gurus should help in bringing a contextual perspective to our search. Punjab, where the faith originated and grew, came to be ruled by a series of Muslim dynasties with the Ghauri’s occupation of North India towards the end of 12th century. This was 172 years before the Muslim rule could extend to other parts of India. In the process Punjab became the arena for initial contact and ensuing struggle between Hindus and Muslims. Notwithstanding some Hindu Rajas who continued to rule over small territories, most of Hindus lived in Muslim ruled parts. They resented being ruled by Muslims and their discriminatory practices towards Hindus.

Guru Nanak [1469-1539] in his compositions has given some vivid descriptions of the suffering and plight of people under capricious Muslim rulers. He was also very critical of chicanery of Hindu elite castes that for their own benefit became willing tools of the Muslim rulers to oppress their own.

It was in this setting that the Gurus continued on their missionary of bringing the revealed message to people delivered in their spoken language. For ease of written access the second Guru modified the existing scripts to evolve what has come to be known as Gurmukhi and in which the Guru’s compositions were written. In 1604, less than three quarters of a century from passing of Nanak, Guru Arjan brought together authenticated compilation of compositions of the Gurus and some selected writings of saints belonging to diverse traditions that provided a clear theological foundation for the nascent panth.

The followers of the Gurus were growing in locations as far apart as Kabul and Dacca. The local congregations called sangats, were organized into piris and manjis under the control of masands appointed by the Gurus. The masands acted as preachers, provided spiritual guidance to the sangats, managed the dharamsal activities [prayer services, kirtan, langar, serai &c.] and also collected the daswandh offering by the devotees and transmitted it to the Guru. Significantly Sikhs had begun addressing the Guru as sacha patshah, the true king and through effective organization of the panth Guru’s temporal stature as well as resources had been enhanced.

Increasing number of Hindus and even a segment of Muslims had been gravitating to Guru’s discipleship, as their precepts were seen to be inclusive, egalitarian and did not deny opportunity for spiritual quest to anybody. This started to create a lot of uneasiness among Hindus and during the ministry of Amar Das some Brahmin detractors of the Guru complained to Akbar that his practice of allowing all to eat together was ignoring the religious and social distinctions of the Hindus. Ram Das was sent to Lahore to the Emperor’s court and explained effectively the Guru’s persuasion of equality before God of all human beings. ‘When Akbar refused to take action against the Guru, they bribed the local officials to harass the Sikhs. This was the beginning of the oppression of the Sikhs – — and the first break with Hindu social polity’ says Khushwant Singh.[2]

Later when Arjan was busy compiling the Adi Granth, a report was again sent to Akbar that the anthology contained passages vilifying Islam. Again Bhai Buddha and Gurdas satisfied the Emperor by reading out the alleged hymn to him. Towards the end of Akbar’s rule certain influential Muslim clerics like Shaikh Ahmed Sirhindi also known as Mujaddid al Sani, who considered himself as the second Prophet of Islam, had started to advocate persecution of infidels and wanted to control the spread of Sikhi before it became a threat to Islam.[3]

At the same time the Gurus were confronted with a nagging internal problem. Certain family members who felt they had a claim to the Ministry challenged each succession of the Guru even though it was done as directed by the preceding Guru. This divide not only created sects or parallel movements inimical to the panth but also degenerated into a personal vendetta against the Guru in the time of Arjan.

Guru Arjan no doubt sensed the confluence of these forces and the gathering dark clouds that might engulf the panth. Some of his compositions reflect on the conflict between Hindu and Muslim thought. In another he articulates the distinct and separate identity of Sikhs. Some others point to motivated attempts at attacks against his person while others allude to a society where discriminatory taxes like jazia imposed on Hindus will not be prevalent. We will explore this a bit further by looking at the specific cites from the Granth.

Guru’s Reflections on Hindu Muslim Tension

Seeing the continuing tendency among Hindus and Muslims to stick to narrow religious boundaries and theological interpretations, he reminded both that Muslim yearning for – bahisht – paradise, and Hindu longing for – surgindoo – heaven without an understanding of and living according to God’s will is not going to open those doors for them.[4] We must understand that God by any name – pir, paighambar, narayan, basudev – is the One and only merciful Master. He is all pervading and provides support to each and every heart. Allah and Paarbrahm are one and the same.[5]

In another verse, his reference to Hindu-Muslim tensions is more direct when he says that I believe in the one [shared] God – gusai, alloh – who is the One that brings Hindu and Muslim conflicts to resolution. In this composition he also articulates the separateness of Sikh identity from Hindus and Muslims yet emphasizing that none of us were created as Hindus, Muslims [or any other faith] for our bodies and souls belong to one God – call Him Allah or Ram.[6]

The Guru was very even handed in his expression even though he did employ different metaphors to get the thought to adherents of these rival faiths. This is evident from the earlier cites and even more vividly clear from the two almost identical compositions, one employing Muslim metaphor and the other using Hindu metaphor included on the same page in the Granth. The purport of the message in both these texts is that all including the gods, prophets, religious texts, clerics et al will pass. Only the One true Creator and His slave will be eternal. Witness:

  • Earth, sky, nether regions, moon and sun shall pass. Emperors, bankers, rulers and leaders [badisah, shah, umrav, khan] shall depart. All people whether poor, rich, humble or uncaring shall pass. Qazis, Shekhs and preachers [masaaik] shall arise and be gone. Spiritual teachers, prophets and disciples [peer, paikambar, a-ulee-ay] – none of these shall remain. Fasts, calls to prayer and sacred scriptures [roja bang nivaj katayb] – if their import is not understood shall also vanish as millions of species of beings on the earth continue their cycles of transmigration. Only the One True Lord God and His slave shall be eternal.[7]
  • Sacred shrines, idols, temples, and places of pilgrimage like Kedarnath, Mathura and Benares and the millions of gods shall all pass away. Simritees, Shastras, four Vedas and the six systems of philosophy shall vanish. Pandits, religious scholars, poets and their writings will all go as will yogis, celibates, ascetics, quietists or other sages [jati, sanyasee, muni]. Whatever is seen is all destined to perish. Only the Supreme Lord God and His servant shall be eternal.[8]
On Those Inimical

Guru Arjan as well as other writers in the Granth have decried those who indulged in slander and detraction of the saintly. There are a couple of references in the Guru’s compositions that seem to reflect on his own troubling experience. A composition in the Granth says: the Lord saved me from Sulhi Khan. He did not succeed in his plot but died in disgrace. God severed his head and instantly he was reduced to dust. The One who created him destroyed him as he plotted and planned evil.[9] As the story goes, Sulahi Khan was a Mughal courtier. Prithi Chand invited him and both conspired to finish off Arjan. While showing him round, however Sulahi’s horse stepped over a burning kiln that gave way and he was roasted alive.


Another composition also seems to reflect on the fate of detractors and those who oppress weak and poor. It says – God has exhumed by fire the bearded emperor who struck down the poor. The slanderer died of deadly fever. None can save them and their ill repute will go with them in life and hereafter. Through the ages, God administers true justice, is the savior of His slaves and His glory is manifest.[10]


The foregoing gives a flavoring of the times and writings of the Guru that may have some bearing on the totality of the contextual frame in which the Guru gave the call that is our subject. Let us now turn to the poem that incorporates the call and learn what has been articulated. I am giving below a gist of my understanding of the thought contained in the poem but must caution that it is not a translation nor is it presented following the order in which the stanzas have been written:

I heard of the Guru, and so I went to him. I fell at his feet to please and appease him. The true Guru was kind to instill in me the virtues of Naam, charity and inner cleansing. This transformed me to recognize only the One Lord and know of none other.  Now Lord of the universe is my dearest love, dearer than my parents, family and friends.

The Lord has assigned me the task to challenge and overcome the five evil instincts. With His grace I prepare to wrestle these five enemies. Ready, I tie a tall, plumed turban as I come to the arena where all have gathered to watch the contest. The merciful Lord also is seated there to behold it. Bugles play and drums beat. The five wrestlers enter the arena and they circle around as I engage them. I throw the five challengers to the ground, and having won, the Guru gives me a pat on the back. In the Guru’s Court, God has blessed me with the Robe of Honor.

I joyously call all, my friends, to join the festivities, enjoy and eat. I relate that I came to His sanctuary and with Guru’s grace I have taken the five rivals as prisoners. No evil instinct dares to rise within me and I have now become the master of my mind. My body-village was in ruins under vagaries of evil thoughts but now it is populous and prosperous. The Guru has implanted Shabad deep within me and firmly attached Naam to my robe. I meditate on and serve God continually. All my affairs are arranged, my desires are answered and hunger in my mind is appeased. With no entanglements remaining, I have obtained supreme peace.

So strengthened and with the hand of true Guru upon my forehead I proceed to establish dharamsal rooted in truth. I seek out Guru’s Sikhs, and bring them into it. I wash their feet, wave fan over them and bowing low, I prostrate before them. Drawing deep on my faith in God I beseech His acceptance and guidance. Softly and gently, droplets of divine nectar trickle down. I speak as my Lord causes me to speak. The Merciful Lord has now conveyed His command that let no one chase after and attack anyone else and let every one abide in peace. Let this – halemi raj -benevolent, humble and modest rule prevail. 

Let us remember that we all who have come to be together in our lives on this earth, each of us shall return home by a different route. The God oriented gurmukhs will reap profit while the self-willed manmukhs will lose their investment and depart. For me, the Guru has cut away my bonds and I shall not have to dance in the wrestling arena of life again. Embarked upon this boat of Truth I am united with the Primal Being and liberated.[11]

Halemi – Some Discussion

The key word in this paradigm propounded by Guru Arjan is halemi raj translated as rule through humility. The word halemi occurs in a couple of other places in Gurbani where again it has been translated as humility. In both cases – Guru Arjan using the metaphor of Muslim prayers[12] and by Guru Nanak in a farming metaphor[13]– the word has been used along with other virtues and its translation as humility fits in with the contexts.

Humility has been treated as a sublime virtue in Sikh thought. Guru Nanak placed realm of humility at the highest level that may be achieved by men in spiritual quest transition above which is possible only if God’s grace descends on them. Termed saram khand it is the realm where forms of incomparable beauty are fashioned and intellect, understanding and intuitive consciousness is shaped. So is the consciousness of warriors for righteous causes and those spiritually perfect fashioned there.[14] Thus viewed humility is associated with most highly developed consciousness where the person is in total and complete harmony with the creation with all its diversity and complexities.


Bhagat Namdev in his long hymn about the Sultan asking him to revive a dead cow or face death closes by saying [when the cow was revived by divine intervention] that the purpose of the miracle was that the king should walk on the path of truth and humility.[15]

My sense from the above is that the word halemi in the poem is intended to mean humility in a broader way to include all its related attributes.

Gursikh – some discussion

The word has been translated as Guru’s Sikh. Its literal meaning is disciple of the Guru. To grasp its meaning let us look at another composition, where Guru Arjan has spoken thus of the feelings of a virtuous, searching, tormented soul when she sees a Sikh of the Guru: I bow to him in humility and fall at his feet. I tell to him of the pain tormenting my soul, and beg him to unite me with the Guru. I implore him to impart to me understanding that helps me control my wandering mind. I place my hopes in him and beseech him to show me the path to God to take my pain and suffering away!

[The Sikh says] by myself, I do not even know how to speak; I say as the Lord tells me to. Come my sister, abandon intellectual pursuits and forget love of duality; do what the Guru tells you to do. This way, you shall obtain vision of the Lord and hot winds shall not even touch you. Guru Nanak has been kind and compassionate to me. I am blessed with treasure of Lord’s devotional worship and I shall never again feel hunger or thirst. I am satisfied, satiated and fulfilled and when I see a Sikh of the Guru, I humbly bow and fall at his feet.[16]

This seems to say that Gursikh draws inspiration from the Guru and can unite others with the divine. He fully accepts and lives by the divine teachings. In other words the term is intended to imply a pious person who could inspire others through his demonstrated sense of piety.

Dharamsal – some discussion

The word dharamsal in this poem has been translated in various texts as temple [of truth]. To me it seems that this interpretation may be rather restrictive. The context in the poem is of life and its larger challenge of striving to subdue cardinal vices and imbibing values that help in not having to dance in the wrestling arena of life again. This seems akin to tis vich dharti thap rakhi dharma sal concept of dharma khand in Japji, where the phrase dharmasal conveys the import of an arena for righteous action. I think this interpretation would fit in more with the totality of the concept propounded in the poem. In other words the vision envisages a society of people committed to virtuous values, brought together to live in peace and harmony who are conscious that their action choices have profound consequences not only in determining their ability to live together in harmony but also to achieve liberation.


To translate the sublime mystical thought into a mundane working concept is a hazardous task but attempt it we must to relate it to life as we know and the world we are living in. I therefore will proceed to do that in the light of what the poem says and my understanding of related Sikh thought.

The realm where such a society may exist is part of the world established by God in the midst of nights, days, weeks, seasons; wind, water, fire and nether regions, characterized as dharamsal, an abode for dharam. This setting is subject to immutable laws that bind the creation to go about its assigned duty in a detached manner. God has placed beings of diverse species and hues with various, infinite names and identities in this realm. This is arena for dharma and actions and deeds of the mortals while in this realm will, when they depart be scrutinized from their dharmic perspective in God’s court.[17]

This dharamsal is rooted in truth i.e. truth is its dharma and its foundational principle. This dharma is lived through the practice of nam, dan, isnan – naam, charity and inner purity [also external cleanliness]. This triad commended by Guru Nanak[18] continues to serve as a concise definition of Sikh ethos where freedom from cycle of transmigration is primarily achieved through the practice of nam simran or meditation on the divine Name, assisted by altruistic giving [dan] but essentially involving pure living [isnan]. All three precepts in thought as well in praxis underpin the concept of seva where the believers are persuaded to surrender themselves totally, body, mind and materials – tan, man, dhan – to the Guru and live per Guru’s teachings to achieve union with the Divine.[19] The concept translates into seva in praxis as the acts like bringing water, waving fan indicate.

The ‘truth’ characteristic also suggests that the State and the rulers do not have skeletons hiding in their closets. The inner working of the administration is clean and trustworthy. There is no falsehood; there is no cheating, lying, deceiving, misleading, surveillance of or snooping into citizens’ lives. The operating procedures are not oppressive, coercive or degrading of the dignity of the individual.

Those who wish to seek a leadership role to establish such a society must seek guidance from a mentor who should be a person of impeccable credentials. The mentor must have strong moral and ethical foundation and should be recognized by the people as worthy of mentoring [like the Guru]. The learner must give up all evil propensities and demonstrate his fitness by undergoing a rigorous test that should be in the open so that those who are part of this dispensation validate it and are satisfied with transparency of the scrutiny – like in a wrestling bout.

The leader or the ruler seeks out those who can make this realm a better place and tries to persuade them to come and be a part of it. He treats them with great respect and ensures that their needs and their comforts are taken care of [Gursikhs and their treatment]. These people become the pace setters, examples, role models as well as mentors for others to be better citizens.

Humility in dealing with the populace by the ruling elite defines the way such a State is governed. With this at the core of its governance policy regulation is accomplished only through persuasion and consensus using a participative mode. Implicitly it means that people are treated as sovereign [siblings of destiny] and the rulers see their role as facilitators for the people’s efforts to provide for themselves, enjoy their lives peacefully and follow their pursuits without hindrance. In this fraternal setting both sides recognize that their interests and pursuits are shared. All are treated equal as in abchal nagar where the ‘stores are filled with intuitive peace and happiness and there is no tax on non-believers or any fines or levies at death’.[20]

Humility is not to be read as a sign of weakness or lack of resolve. On the contrary it is only the strong that can really be humble without being servile or cringing. It is a choice of behavior, made and lived only through deep deliberation. Those so imbued are in fact real warriors who would stake everything for the righteous cause. This plays out in two ways. The State must recognize that discriminative or oppressive policies will not work a resolute minority if it has a righteous cause and also that this internal policy of the State should against not be read as weak leadership by those inimical to the State.

In this environment of peace and amity no one chases after or causes harm to anybody. There are no detractors, slanderers or hate mongers spreading divisive virus among people along religious, ethnic, caste or class lines or manipulating the political authority to achieve their personal ambitions. People feel secure; are not anxious or fearful and the societal environment is blissful promoting higher values and spiritual pursuits. All people are believers and even though they follow their respective paths they accept plurality and diversity inherent in creation and share basic ethical and moral values.

People enjoy their God given freedom to make choices. Gurmukhs remind them that birth as a human being is their unique opportunity to connect with the divine. In this endeavor the Guru and gurmukh always help, guide and bring encouragement to them. Those who progress spiritually grow into gurmukhs. Fellowship [sangat] helps for there is always so much to learn from one another as long as one develops the discriminating intellect to sift the right from the wrong or even not so right [bibek budhi].  The fellowship bond is akin to extension of family and friends – a strong and reinforcing link without being invasive, onerous or threatening.

All must live together as fellow citizens in this community as productive, responsible and contributing members taking care of their families. Temporal pursuits are essential part of their mundane lives and coexist with their spiritual quest. Their effort is to work hard and through honest endeavor support their familial needs and spare some for the needy.

There are those who may not live by the higher moral and ethical values and continually are guided by their own self will and self interest. They are manmukhs and will end up losing their chance to connect with the divine in this life. For them the cycle of birth and death will continue and they will surely be dancing in the wrestling arena of life again.


I think a discussion on this subject would not be complete without some comments on the structure of the poem that come to mind. The poem does not occupy a unique position on a stand alone basis that compositions like Japji, Anand, Sukhmani, Asa ki Var or some other anthologies in prescribed or popular liturgical use do. It also seems to have eluded to receive favor from ragis as a preferred hymn for kirtan [the only exception I know of is by Bhai Harbans Singh who too took the theme of gurmukh laha lai gaye not halemi raj]. I still have to hear a discourse on the subject from our kathakars. At the same time I apprehend an intriguing fascination that the composition evokes – somewhat akin to the feeling that one gets at reading an epic poem or a mega narrative. For a hymn it is not very short. Its twenty-one stanzas place it well beyond the mode of four or less.

The poem tells a story within the larger story of life of the eternal struggle between good and evil. The struggle plays out in the open with the drums beating, the bugles sounding and the rivals dressed up in colorful, heroic attires. The audience is large and diverse – almost the entire creation, good, bad, high, low, believers, non-believers et al. Even God deigns to witness the bout and descends to join those in the arena. The warrior on the good side is weak, even puny, but has the blessing and miraculous spiritual power of the holy preceptor as support in this fight against the strong, burly, intimidating evil foes. Their respective attributes are clear, defined and unchanging with no room for doubt about their position in the ethical and moral realm. The presentation is lyrical, the story and its moral message unfolding in the middle as we go back and forth in the mystic of the narrative. It has an idealistic vision that nurtures the hope that the transcendent God is with us and supportive of our efforts at bringing order and equity in the society if we cleanse our individual selves and move collectively forward with a spirit of service.

Once again the victory belongs to the virtuous – but a couple of features stand out. Firstly this battle is played out within and therefore there are no gory scenes; no blood letting; no loss of the innocent lives; no wide spread suffering; no degrading episodes; no collateral damage. It spares the grand struggle from becoming an all-consuming societal strife. The message comes through strong and clear but in a humane way.

The next difference to me is how the victor savors his victory. He is happy. He feels blessed but he is not content with just being the victor. This victory must have a higher purpose. His happiness inspires in him the ideal of creating a society where the ruling elite and societal leadership come forward to lead with humility and modesty – through seva. What a way to savor victory!

To me the poem seems to presage the story of the sage whose intensity of love divine is so strong that he is no more afraid. Imbued only with spirit of love and seva he has this consuming commitment to deliver the promise of bringing love to all. He has a strong and abiding belief in an open fraternity where none is inimical or stranger to the other and all live in harmony.[21] A savior who will give up anything, even make the supreme sacrifice if that is the way God causes it to play out for his beliefs and values. This poem, in the manner of an epic, seems to foreshadow the grand finale of the Guru going through those inhuman, unbearable tortures that eventually followed to test the validity of strength of good over evil with blissful fortitude; with not a shadow of doubt, complaint or rancor in his demeanor; only words expressing tranquil acceptance of divine will on his silent lips ‘tera bhana meetha laagey, har naam padarath nanak mangey’.[22]

It is the story of the sevak of the Lord who is eternal like his Master. It is no small tale. Let us bow in homage to this great sevak Guru – truly divine in human form!

[1] Sikhism for the Modern Man, GND Amritsar, p. 46

[2] A History of Sikhs, Vol. I, p. 54, 2001

[3] ibid p. 58 & footnote 22 p. 59

[4] koi kahai turak koi kahai hindoo. koi bachhai bhisat koi surgindoo.—  kaho nanak jin hukam pachata prabh sahib ka tin bhed jata – Ramkali M V, p. 885

[5] miharvaan maula tuhi ek. pir paikambar sekh.—. narain narhar dayal. ramat ram ghat ghat adhar. basudev basat sabh thaey.— kaho nanak gur khoey bharam. eko alhu parbarahm – Ramkali M V, p. 897

[6] varat na rahao na mah ramdana. tis sevee jo rakhai nidana. ek gusaee alhu mera. hindoo turak duhaa nebera. haj kabai jao na tirath pooja. eko sevi avar na dooja. poojaa karo na nivaj gujaro. ek nirankar le ridai namaskaro. na ham hindoo na musalman. alah ram kay pind paran – Bhairo M V, p. 1136

[7] dharat akas patal hai chand soor binase. badisah sah umrav khan dhahi deray jase. rang tung gareb masat sabh lok sidhasee. kajee sekh masayaka sabhay uth jasee. peer paikaabar auleeay ko thir na rahasee. roja bag nivaj kateb vin bujhay sabh jasee. lakh chorasee maydnee sabh aavai jasee. nihchal sach khudaa-ay ek khudaa-ay banda abhinasee.– M V, p. 1100, Pauri 17

[8] tat tirath dev devalia kedar mathura kase. kot tetees devte san indrai jasee. simrit sastar bed char khat daras samasee. pothee pandit geet kavit kavtay bhee jasee. jatee satee sanyasea sabh kalai vasee. mun jogee digambra jamai san jasee. jo deesai so vinsana sabh binas binasee. thir parbarahm parmesaro sevak thir hosee – M V, p. 1100, Pauri 18.

[9] sulhee tay narain raakh. sulhee ka hath kahee na pahuchai sulhee hoey moo-aa napak. rahao. kadh kuthar khasam sir kateya khin meh hoey geya hai khak. manda chitvat chitvat pachia jin rachia tin deenaa dhak – Bilawal M V, p. 825

[10] gareeba upar je khinjai darhee. parbarahm sa agan meh sarhee. poora niao kare kartar. apunay das ko rakhanhar. rahao. aad jugad pargat partap. nindak mua upaj vad tap. tin mareya je rakhai na koey. agai pachhai mandee soey – Gauri M V, p. 199

[11] pai paey manaee soey jio. satgur purakh milaya tis jevad avar na koey jio. rahao gosai mehnda ithrha. amm abay thavhu mithrha. bhain bhai sabh sajna tudh jeha nahee koey jio.  tayrai hukmay savan aya. mai sat ka hal joaya. nao beejan laga aas kar har bohal bakhas jamaey jee-o.  ho gur mil ik pachhanda. duya kagal chit na janda. har iktai karai laion jio bhavai tivai nibahi jio.  tusee bhogihu bhunchahu bhaiho. gur deeban kavaey painaio. ha-o hoa mahar pind da bann aday panj sareek jio.  hao aya samai tihandia. panj kirsan mujayray mihdia. kann koi kadh na hanghee nanak vutha ghugh girao jio. ha-o varee ghumma javda. ik saha tudh dhiaida. ujarh thayhu vasaeo h-o tudh vitahu kurban jio. har ithai nit dhyada. man chindee so fal payada. sabhay kaj savarian laheean man kee bhukh jio.  mai chhadia sabho dhandhrhaa. gosai sayvee sachrha. nao nidh naam nidhaan har mai palai badha chhik jio. mai sukhee hoo sukh paya. gur antar sabad vasaya. satgur purakh vikhaalia mastak dhar kai hath jio. mai badhee sach dharam sal hai. gursikha lahda bhal kai. pair dhova pakha fayrda tis niv niv laga paey jio.  sun gala gur peh aya. naam daan isnaan dirhaya. sabh mukat hoa saisarrha nanak sachee bayrhee charh jio.  sabh sarisat sayvay din raat jio. day kann sunhu ardas jio. thok vajaey sabh ditheya tus apay layan chhadaey jio. hun hukam hoa miharvan da. pai koay na kisai ranjandaa. sabh sukhalee vutheea ih hoa halaymee raj jio. jhimm jhimm amrit varasdaa. bolaya bolee khasam da. baho man keea tuh upray tooaapay paa-ihi thaey jio.  tayria bhagta bhukh sad tayreea. har locha pooran mayreea. dayh daras sukhdaatia mai gal vich laihu milaey ji-o.  tudh jayvad avar na bhalya. too deep loa pa-i-aalia. too thaan thanantar rav rahya nanak bhagtaa sach adhaar jio.  ha-o gosai da pahilvanrha. mai gur mil uch dumalrha. sabh hoee chhinjh ikthee-aa dayu baitha vaykhai aap jio.  vat vajan tamak bhayrya. mal lathay laiday fayreea. nihtay panj ju-aan mai gur thapee ditee kand jio. sabh ikthay hoe aya. ghar jasan vaat vataya. gurmukh laha lai ga-ay manmukh chalay mool gavaey jio.  Toovarna chihna bahra. har diseh hajar jahra. sun sun tujhai hi-aa-iday tayray bhagat ratay guntas jio. mai jug jug da-yai sayvrhee. gur katee mihdee jayvrhee. hao bahurh chhinjh na nacheo nanak osar ladha bhal jio – Sri Rag M V, p. 73

[12] aval sifat doojee saabooree. teejai halaymee cha-uthai khairee. punjvai panjay ikat mukaamai ayhi panj vakhat tayray aparparaa – Maru M V, p. 1084:

[13] bhao bhuay pavit panee sat santokh balayd. hal halemi halee chit cheta vatar vakhat sanjog – Ramkali M I, p. 955

[14] saram khand kee banee roop. tithai gharhat gharheeai bahut anoop. —- tithai gharheeai surat mat man  buh. tithai gharheeai suraa sidhaa kee sudh – Japji, Pauri 36

[15] is patia ka ihai parvan. sach seel chalo sultan – Bhairon Namdev, p. 1166

[16] jo deesai gursikhrha tis niv niv lago paey jio. akha birtha jia kee gur sajan deh milaey jio. soi das updesrha mera man anat na kahoo jaey jio. ih man tai koon devsa mai marag deh bataey jio. ho aya dhoorahu chal ke mai takee to sarnaey jio. mai asa rakhee chit meh mera sabho dukh gavaey jio. it marag chale bhaiarhay gur kahai so kar kamaey jio. tiagen man kee matrhee visaren dooja bhao jio. iho pavahi har darsavarha nah lagai tatee vao jio. ho aphu bol na janda mai kahia sabh hukmao jio. har bhagat khajana bakhsia gur nanak kiya pasao jio. mai bahurh na tarisna bhukhrhee ho raja taripat aghaey jio. jo gur deesai sikhrha tis niv niv lago paey jio – Suhi, M V, Gunvantee p. 763

[17] raati ruti thitee var, pawan pani agni patal, tis vich dharti thap rakhi dharamsal, tis vich jio jugat ke rang, tin ke nam anek anant, karmi karmi hoey veechar, sacha aap sacha darbar, tithe sohan panch parwan, nadar karam pave neesan, kach pakai uthe paye, Nanak geaya japai jaye – [M I p.7]

[18] gurmukh nam dan isnan, gurmukh laagai sehj dheyan – Ramkali M I, Sidh Ghost, p. 942

[19] tan man dhan sabh saunp gur ko hukam maniai paiai – Ramkali Anand M III, p.918

[20] saant  sahj sukh kay sabh haat,  saah vaapaaree aykai that,  jayjia dann ko laey na jagaat – Asa M V, p. 430

[21] neh ko bairee nahe baigana sagal sang hum ko ban aaiey – Kanra M V, p. 1299

[22] Asa M V, p. 394

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