People everywhere, in spite of major improvements in their standard of living and economic condition display a marked sense of dissatisfaction with their position. Every person is seeking more and more irrespective of the need. Possession and acquisition seem to have become more important than use or utility. The global earth’s resources are being put to tremendous strain and there is rising concern if the acquisitive, consumerist culture characteristic of the present times may not in fact cause major harm to the prospects of sustainability as also of human quest for peace and tranquility.
This commentary is not characteristic only of the materialistic quest of human beings. The same behavior is evidenced in pursuit of other desires – be those motivated by the inherent instincts or by the sensory drives. The societies therefore are experiencing increasing levels of tension, divisiveness and alienation.
These social issues and their moral underpinnings were always considered important and caused the sages and seers to think and ponder over them through the ages. Almost half a millennium earlier, Nanak and successor Sikh Gurus made extensive comments on these tendencies in their compositions included in the Sikh scripture, Sri Guru Granth Sahib. Guru Nanak has reflected on the transformation in human disposition and preferred lead instinct or social ethos for their pursuit through the Indian mythical four ages of human experience. In summary it could be presented as below:
AGE NAME DURATION Yrs DISPOSITION SOCIAL ETHOS
Sat yug 172,000 Contentment Righteousness
Tretha yug 1,296,000 Self-restraint Perseverance
Dwapar yug 864,000 Austerity Purity
Kal yug 432,000 Flaming desire Falsehood
According to this mythical calendar we are presently in the early fourth millennium of the fourth age – a total period of over two million years. The transition of human disposition from a state of contentment to flaming desire stands out as progressive erosion – controlled initially by self-restraint and then by more severe discipline of denial and austerity before complete capitulation in the contemporary age. The social ethos has likewise changed from righteous motivation to falsehood.
For the Muslim thought we have drawn upon the extensive writings and commentary by Said Nursi, a staunch believer who lived through and resisted transformation of Turkey to a secular society. He has made frequent references to similar concerns in his writings and has expressed his view candidly when he says “Western Civilization has not truly heeded the revealed religion, it has both impoverished man and increased his needs. It has destroyed the principle of frugality and contentment and increased wastefulness, greed and covetousness. It has opened up the way to tyranny and what is unlawful. Through encouraging people to take advantage of the means of dissipation, it has also cast those needy unfortunates into total laziness. It has destroyed the desire for effort and work. It has encouraged depravity and dissipation and wasted their lives on useless things. Furthermore it has made those needy and lazy people ill. Through abuse and prodigality, it has been the means of spreading a hundred sort of diseases.”
We thus have two visions here – one expressing deep concern at what is happening in the consumerist world today and the other a macro view of the erosion in ethico-spiritual values over the ages. Both these visions have a confluence in that these address erosion in the moral basis of value system of our times with contentment seemingly being a primal ethical value underpinning this phenomenon.
CONTENTMENT IN GURBANI
At the close of Sikh scripture, Guru Arjun Dev who compiled the holy Sri Guru Granth Sahib summed up essence of its contents by saying “In this salver are placed three things: Divine Truth, Contentment and Divine Wisdom. Added is the nectar of Lord’s Name, support and sustainer of all. All who partake of and relish this will get deliverance. Keep it always close to your heart and let it not be forsaken says Nanak, for tied to the Lord’s feet [His Word] you will swim across this vast expanse.”
That contentment is one of the three virtues identified as important is observed in several other verses too. For example the Guru says that the most excellent way of life is to practice truth, contentment and compassion. In yet another verse the message is that truth, contentment and heightened awareness is achieved through listening. There are other examples like letting truth, contentment and restraint be your guides; and truth, contentment and intuitive peace are obtained from the revealed Word. That it occurs in conjunction with truth so often would further reinforce its importance in the Sikh thought.
The multi dimensional attributes surrounding the concept of contentment and influencing its importance become evident as we proceed further. In another verse the Guru is asking to be blessed with contentment so that his mind thus made receptive lets Lord’s name dwell within and become his support. Thus contentment is seen to have an enabling role for spiritual advancement. At another place the Guru says that the first endeavor of a devotee should be to be subsumed with the Lord’s praises and next seek to be in a state of contentment – clearly indication of a symbiotic relation where causality is shared with God’s name itself.
Nanak commends that we should think of contentment as the father and wisdom as the mother– the two relationships that mould, inspire and are role models for the most. The level of appreciation for contentment is further raised when the Guru says that those whom God chooses to unite with Him get immersed in contentment. Guru Arjan also says that the person on whom the Lord casts His merciful glance is blessed with truth, contentment, understanding and contemplation, is always subsumed with the nectar of God’s name and is continuously engrossed singing His praises. He has gone past the worldly difficulties and pain. God chooses such people to unite with Himself that He likes and they are the ones acceptable as genuine in God’s court.
Contentment continues in its upward trajectory when Nanak says that the abode of truth, contentment and bliss is beyond the abode of gods and that contentment, faith and tolerance, are the sustenance of angels. At yet another place he says that the creation is held in balance by righteousness, compassion and rectitude
That contentment is a mark of the person at a very high level of spiritual progression is stressed. Nanak says that the devotion of the contented ones is accepted for they avoid evil ways and live by righteous and honest means. Freed from material attachment and worldly bondage their living is guided by moderation. They remember and reflect on the True Lord alone. Using the metaphor of sati Guru Amardas says that those who live in contentment and modesty and rising every morning remember and serve God, the true consort, are satis – not those who immolate with the husband.
Thus we see that contentment is ranked very high in Sikh values and its associated attributes include truth; compassion; faith; tolerance; wisdom; moderation; modesty; heightened awareness; restraint; intuitive peace; righteousness; freedom from attachment; remembering and serving God; understanding; avoiding evil influences; living by honest means; contemplation.
As we proceed further it may be instructive for us to reflect on the Sikh thought and what some Sikh scholars have said on the concepts surrounding contentment.
Harbans Singh says that an essential feature of Sikh thought consists in reconciliation of worldly pursuits with the higher spiritual values providing a balanced approach. The faith affirms fundamental and necessary material pursuits and calls them pious. Satisfaction of basic needs is even seen as a pre-requisite for spiritual advancement lest they prove a hurdle. In balance the Sikh thought does not favor a life of poverty nor of sensual pleasures though if a choice were to be made, poverty is preferred over unfair and immoral means. The concept is means oriented aimed at harmoniously contributing to well integrated human life consciously directed to the ultimate goal of God realization.
Sohan Singh argues that Nanak’s thought discloses an interrelationship between contentment and – dharam – social order, in his interpretation. His view is that in japji Nanak implies that social order [dharma] is holding men together through a string of contentment. Again [in asa ki var quoted earlier] Nanak identifies contentment as the human disposition and dharma as the social ethos. Sohan Singh sees here contentment and social order as the individual and social condition of one and the same moral phenomenon. He further argues that since Nanak also identifies dharma as the first stage of a man’s spiritual ascent, to be dharmic a man must be contented because unbridled desire would be disruptive of social order. A contented person is accepting of and effective at performing his role in society thus maintaining a desirable social order.
Avtar Singh considers wisdom a fundamental virtue that plays a key role in Sikh ethics. The other virtues considered are truthfulness, temperance, courage, justice, humility and contentment. He believes that the socially active and spiritually enhancing way of life persuaded by the Gurus may become demanding and therefore to keep stress and frustrations in balance the virtue of contentment becomes integral to the Sikh moral system. He sees santokh [calmness] and vairag
as two options to a person when faced with disappointment with the results of effort and considers contentment as the one that though more difficult, would enable renewed effort and continued resolve. He defines contentment as “studiously cultivated state of mind, which acts as a safety valve in human personality in contradistinction to the ascetic choice.”
Mansukhani places Truth as the highest virtue in Sikhism. His understanding of Truth includes righteousness, sincerity, honesty, uprightness, frank-ness, justice, impartiality et al that “give rise to mutual trust and respect.” Contentment comes next and he sees it as feeling satisfied with what one has and thus free from greed, envy and jealousy. A contented mind is able to better adjust to adversity like sickness, sorrow, poverty or distress and is in fact always full of gratitude and joy. He commends the traditional wisdom of looking at the less fortunate to be contented. [There is a broad spectrum of disagreement with this passive characterization of contentment as not consistent with the activist approach of the Sikh Gurus.]
Without attempting any hierarchy of virtues Wazir Singh starts with wisdom. His concept of wisdom implies thoughtful and rational disposition; intellect and wise learning; reason and pondering over the essence. Contentment comes next and he sees it as indispensable for excellence of individual life and as an enabling virtue for altruistic activity. A contented person, he believes, will choose suffering over dishonor.
Santokh Singh interprets mundavani [quoted earlier] thus –“man through continuous reflection — can attain a state of detachment leading to a state of contentment –– which in turn leads him to the attainment of Truth — provided [he is] – reflecting – meditating – with love and devotion on — the ultimate reality.” For him the import of – santokh – is much more than contentment; it includes temperance, patience, detachment and surrender to the will of God.
Saran Singh says, “Moral discipline must underpin our faith. Everyone is expected to exercise restraint and never to overstep the limit of contentment —- trying to get more than one needs – deserves – is – self defeating – demeaning and antisocial —- only a discerning and disciplined mind can draw the line at contentment – where the need ends and indulgence begins.”
CONTENTMENT – HOW OBTAINED
The Gurus recognize that it is not easy to achieve contentment for it comes at a very high stage of a person’s ethical and spiritual evolution. At the plane of material needs poverty, want, deprivation could be major sources for lack of contentment. The Guru however says that it is not necessary for a person to be well provided to be content. Verily desire has not been satisfied in even the mightiest kings and warriors. On the other hand one may be able to achieve peace and contentment in a life of penury – grinding corn and wearing coarse garments. As a practical faith Sikhs are enjoined to live their lives as householders. Denials and austerities are not commended but moderation is. The message is that sense of fulfillment comes if one is content.
Be forgiving. It promotes a sense of accommodation for human failings and gives one the sagacity to forgive errors and omissions by others and in fact help them to improve. The forgiving person promotes empathy and understanding – conducive to his own attainment of calm and contented disposition.
The Gurus have continuously stressed the importance of the company of the virtuous as a tool for spiritual development and in fact even for prayer. The reasons for this persuasion are several but certainly sharing the experiences with others can help develop a more mature understanding of life and its vicissitudes. Isolation, asceticism and withdrawal may encourage denial and austerities but association with the virtuous would encourage contentment.
Serving the Lord, which in effect is serving others, is encouraged to achieve peace, tranquility, humility and contentment. The spirit of service is again a gauge of a person’s relationship with the community – his recognition that there is so much that one can do to help others. It brings one the comfort of a calm and contented disposition.
Lust, anger, greed, attachment and haughtiness are five evil tendencies repeatedly mentioned in the Sikh thought as the source of human ills and suffering. Controlling these tendencies is the most important inner struggle that a man wages for his spiritual progression. The persuasion is that consuming these will lead to contentment.
In a similar vein the control of sense organs
[aural, speech, vision, touch, smell]
is also commended because a lot of choices made by us are guided by the way these senses influence our thinking. Such control, says the Guru, will bless the practitioner with virtues of forgiveness, patience and contentment.
Love, truth, humility and virtuous living enable the seed of nam to sprout and subsumed with the love of the Lord, the person lives in God’s will and attains contentment. The heart of the person is now at peace and open for the Lord to abide within.
Gurus commend gurbani, the Guru’s word as an inspiration for obtaining contentment. The Gurus stress that mere repeated readings of scriptures will not bring contentment for the flame of desire may continue to consume the person’s days and nights. The longings and desires are only controlled when the Word dwells within and one internalizes and lives by the persuasion.
NURSI’S VISION OF WHAT IS/IS NOT CONTENTMENT
The thoughts of the Said on frugality and contentment are addressed in some detail in his 19th Flash. The treatise begins with the verse “Eat and drink, but waste not by excess” and his thrust stems from viewing human behavior through the prism of contentment and frugality versus greed, wastefulness and desire.
Contentment and frugality appear together in Nursi’s writings at several places indicating a strong associated relationship. The other virtues given a high place in the paradigm of associated virtues include thankfulness; moderation in actions, words, speech, conduct and consumption.
He believes that contentment is acceptance of results of one’s labor and fate. Being contented strengthens the wish to strive and increases enthusiasm. On the other hand fatalistic acceptance of one’s lot indicates lack of enterprising spirit in the individual. This is not commended.
Nursi makes distinction between sustenance for survival and sustenance/provisions for needs arising from desires but acquiring the appearance of necessity. His view is that human body is so designed that its needs for sustenance are small and the Creator takes care of such needs for humans as also for the other beings in the creation.
The humans have to strive regards their other desires and perceived necessities, though God may bless each individual to a varying degree. What the Said seems to be saying is that individuals should make their life an example of living in balance in relation to these desires. He draws on the example set by the Prophet who was always guided by moderation in speech, eating, drinking and avoidance of excess, negligence, wastefulness and prodigality.
His view is that frugality is the means to achieve contentment. In fact the two have a symbiotic relationship – one who is content is frugal; and one who is frugal, finds the blessing of plenty. He emphasizes that frugality and contentment are in conformity with Divine wisdom and argues that nature has stayed stable through the ages because there is no futility and wastefulness in it. This is due to the inherent balance and equilibrium in creation. Divine wisdom therefore commands frugality and it is the most basic principle in the universe. One may argue here that this seems true only at the macro systemic level over extended periods of time for there is seen enough waste and imbalance in the sub sets of natural phenomenon in the short term. The credible inference therefore is that Nursi is suggesting frugality as a life long commitment and not a short-term panacea for itinerant problems.
Thus if we exercise control over desires, are moderate in consumption, are not wasteful and are thankful for His blessings, our lives would be closer to the balance intended in nature. In that setting “frugality — [is] a form of worship and active prayer for sustenance.” This then becomes a life of worship made prayerful through practice of frugality. I take frugality to imply control over desires.
He takes pains to explain that being frugal is not being mean and stingy though the frugal are sometimes thus stereotyped. His view is that frugality imparts dignity and generosity to a person. By an example from his own life he emphasizes, “Perhaps those who saw this conduct of mine [of restrained rate of consumption] thought it was stinginess and my brother’s conduct for three nights [of rapid consumption to finish] was generosity. But in point of fact I saw that concealed beneath the apparent stinginess lay an elevated dignity, increase and plenty and great reward.”
Nursi also clarifies that the characterization of any conduct has to be judged based on the circumstances and cites the example of Abdullah b Umar, one of seven companions of the Prophet. When asked “O Imam? Solve this difficulty for me! In the market you did that while in your house you did this,” Abdullah replied that he haggled over small change in the market because prudence in the market place is customary and he was not being stingy. Likewise it was not immoderate to give gold coins to the poor at home but only an expression of compassion for the needy. He only did what was the right and appropriate thing in either setting.
In defense of practice of frugality he suggests “[it is] – a source of happiness and pleasure – contentment and licit living.” Frugality in consumption and being content makes life easier and being thankful, one does not seek approbation and is more independent. He has high self-esteem; is not beholden to others and is thus less likely to be compromised. He also emphasizes that a consequence of contentment is better standing in the community as the Hadith says, “The contented person is respected, and the greedy person despised.”
Nursi is passionate about contentment and frugality and emphasizes that their practice ensures one’s life and sustenance more than salary and any unlawful money received would do. It is health giving for the body, a cause for self respect, powerful means of experiencing the pleasure to be found in bounties, cause of dignity and distinction– a very strong endorsement indeed.
Obviously Nursi has strong views on excess, wastefulness and greed. He believes that excess and waste is antithetical to contentment, causes laziness and breeds hypocritical behavior. Becoming slave to taste and pleasure is the cause of so much illness. Greed causes anxiety and tension and makes man jealous and envious. His advice is that if you love wealth; seek it not with greed but with contentment, so that you may have it
[or it seems to be]
In this paradigm of frugality-based contentment Nursi seems to leave some room for indulgence. Citing Shaykh Geylani he says that individuals may enjoy delicacies, when “one’s spirit rules his body, and his heart rules the desires of his soul, and his reason rules his stomach and he wants pleasure for the sake of offering thanks.” The important thing is to have control over desires, and imbibe God’s bounties in a spirit of thankfulness.
One more interesting comment before we move to the next part. The Biography Of Nursi describes how through “the abundance resulting from frugality and contentment”, the Said had been able to provide for the needs of twenty, thirty, and sometimes sixty students without breaking his principle of self-sufficiency. This to me is reflective of the merits of a shared communal sense of contentment that can be a great boon for social cohesion and calm in adverse situations.
We have seen earlier that the most commended method for achieving contentment is through the practice of frugality. This entails control over desires and being guided by moderation. Over time the discipline of frugality may succeed in generating a state of contentment.
Being true to one’s belief helps. The true believers in Islam are aware of their poverty before God and beseech Him for the gift of thankfulness for what they have and to be content. Contentment with the Divine decree and submission to Divine Determining is a mark of Islam.
Trust in God leads to contentment and is the means to God’s mercy. He cites the example of trees and plants that remain rooted ‘contentedly’ in one place and God sends sustenance to them as against animals who pursue their food ‘greedily’, and for this reason are able to attain it only imperfectly. One can debate the state of consciousness of the two and their choice options but the example does convey an important message in its own way.
When asked the question how did he live without working Nursi’s answer was that he lived through frugality and the resulting plenty. Some of his examples may even suggest heavenly intervention like finding a loaf of bread atop a tree at the top of the mountain at a time of dire need when he had a guest. He does display steadfastness in being frugal and unfaltering faith in the Divine.
Nursi also suggests that to be content one should inculcate the quality of preferring others to oneself without demanding or inwardly desiring any material reward. Such people are contented and it is for them that it is said “They prefer others to themselves, though poverty be their lot.”
In another context Nursi says, “Physical misfortunes grow when they are seen to be large, and shrink when they are seen to be small — if one gives physical misfortunes great importance, they will cause anxiety — on which the outward misfortune fastens to perpetuate itself. But if the anxiety is removed by contentment — the physical misfortune will gradually decrease, dry up and vanish.” So much of it is in the mind – controlling emotions helps.
Patience also helps as Nursi says – “if you have intelligence, grow accustomed to contentment and try to be satisfied with little. If you cannot endure it — seek patience — do not complain — if you have to complain, then complain about your soul — for fault is its.”.
One could become contended looking at the example of another. To wit Nursi’s advice to women – if it is your fate to have a husband who is unsuitable for you, be content with your fate and resigned to it. God willing, he will be reformed through your contentment and resignation.
Nursi also has a warning for us and reminds us of the saying: “The eye of contentment is blind to faults.” So if one is content with the state of his consciousness he will not see its faults or admit to them, and seek forgiveness. Such contentment is counter-productive and one should not want it.
BRINGING VISIONS TOGETHER – IN SUM
Bringing the two visions together, contentment is a calm yet buoyant disposition that encourages belief in progress and motivates a person to strive, with humility, in conviction that one is doing one’s best. The person accepts both success and failure calmly. Failure does not disturb his inner calm – it rather motivates him to strive again and harder.
Attainment of contentment involves transcendence of willfulness and inherent evil instincts. It is morally driven and makes no compromise with evil. Taking away the frustrations of worldly life it inculcates satisfaction, happiness and equipoise.
Contentment does not consist in accepting present situation without making effort for improvement in human condition. It is not fatalistic acceptance of poverty, hunger and privations without effort at their removal. It is not accommodation with lethargy, inaction or defeatism. The contented are free of fear, despair, guile and viciousness. They are men of hope and peace perseveringly continuing effort for human welfare. They have abiding trust in the justness of God and His grace. They believe in the triumph of God given bounty and righteousness – degh, tegh fateh – and inspired by forward-looking optimism – chardi kala – they seek the good of one and all – sarbat da bhala. They are not content just to be content!
 asa M I, p. 470
 The Damascus Sermon/A Letter, p.130
 thal vich tin vastoo paeo sat santokh veecharo. amrit naam thakur kaa paio jis ka sabhas adharo. je ko khavai je ko bhunchai tis ka hoey udharo. eh vasat tajee nah jaee nit nit rakh ur dharo. tam sansar charan lag tareeai sabh nanak barahm pasaro – Mundavani M V, p. 1429
 sat santokh daya kamavey eho karni saar – Sri Rag M V, p.51
 suniye sat santokh gyan – Japji Pauri 10.
 sat santokh sanjam hai nal – Ramkali M I, p. 939
 sach santokh sehaj such bani poorey gur tey pavaneya – Majh M III, p. 115
 deh dan santokhia sacha nam miley adhar – Malar M I, p.1286
 aval sift dooji saboori – Maroo M V, p.1084
 mata mat pita santokh – Gauree M I, p.223
 jin kau tum har melo soami te naey santokh gur sara – Bilawal M IV, p.799
 sat santokh gian dhian piare jis naun nadar karey, andin kirtan gun ravey amrit poor bharey, dukh sagar tin langeya piarey bhavjal par parey, jis bhavey tis mel leyay piare soi sada kharey – Sorath M V, p.641
 sat santokh ulas shakat neh seo hai – Bhai Gurdas, Var 3
 sidak saboori sadhika sabar thosa malaeyaka – Sri Rag M I, p.83
 dhaul dharma daya ka poot, santokh thap rakheya jin soot – Japji Pauri 16
 gur gam parman the paeyo sat santokh grahaj leyo – Bhat Kal Svaiye M V, p.1392
 sev kiti santokhiyee jinni sacho sach dheyaia, unni mandey paer neh rakheo kar sukrit dharam kamaya, unni duniya taure bandhna an pani thaura khaya – asa di var, pauri 7
 bhi so satian janian seel santokh rahan, sevan sahibapna nit uthh sanmalan – Var Sorath, M III, p.787
 Sikh Value System and Social Change, p. 66+, Patiala, 1995
 khana pina pavitr hai ditan rijak sanbahey – Asa M I, p.472.
 bhookhe bhagat neh kijey, yeh mala apni lijey – Kabir, p. 656 — maan mangoon taan mangoon dhan lakhmi sut deh – p.1308.
 jis greha bahut tisey griha chinta, jis griha thori so phirey bharamanta, dohi bivastha te jo mukta sohi suhela bhaliye – p.1019
 santan ka dana sookha so sarab nidhan, griha sakat chhatee parkar te bikh saman – p. 811
 In Perspectives on Guru Nanak, Harbans Singh [ed], 1990, Punjabi University, Patiala, p.158 ff
 In the author’s view dharma in Sikh thought is a multi dimensional concept whose core meanings and dimensions include persuasion/faith, code of conduct, duty/role, balancing/harmonizing force, justice, honesty, righteousness and merit. Some other attributes that bear on its core concept include virtues and qualities such as purity, contentment, compassion, truthfulness, self-restraint, forbearance, austerity, continence, as well as prayerful, meditative disposition and refined intellect [wisdom], control of evil propensities and well-directed personal will. One may therefore infer that such attributes along with dharam, in its multi-dimensional meaning, form the paradigm that informs a person’s propensities for action choices and thus his potentialfor spiritual advancement. For a detailed discussion see the paper “Dharti, Dharam & Dhur”
 Ethics of the Sikhs, Punjabi University, Patiala, 1996, chapter IV, p.120
 The Quintessence of Sikhism, SGPC, 1997, p. 147-153
 The Sikh Vision, Ess Ess Publications, New Delhi, 1992, p. 81-3
 Philosophical Foundations of the Sikh Value System, Munshiram Manoharlal, Delhi, 1982, p. 77 ff
 Sikh Bulletin, April-May, 2004
 vadey vadey rajan aur bhuman ki ichh neh bhujee
 peesan pees oadh kamree such man sntokhaey – Suhi M V, p.745
 bina santokh nahin ko rajai
 khima gahi bart seel santokh – Gauri M I, p.223
 sangat kar santokh man paiya – Ramkali M V, p.889
 satgur sev sada such paieyseel santokh sabh taha hey – Maru M III, p.1057
 bhakh ley hoey saboori – Bhairon Kabir, p. 1158
 indri panch panchey vas aaney khima santokh gurmat paavey, Parbhati M III, p.1334
 har ras pi santokh hoa sach vasya man aaye – Bilawal M III, p.850
 sach santokh sehaj such bani poorey gur te pavaneya – Majh M III, p.115
 parh thakey santokh neh aaeo andin jalat vihaey – Sorath M III, p.647
 mansa asa sabad jalaey – Ramkali M I, p.940
 Qur’an, 7:31
 Letters/Seeds of Reality, 95, p.552
 The Flashes/11th Flash, p.93
 23rd Letter, p.334
 The Flashes/30th Flash/The Divine Name, p.401
 The Rays/The Supreme Sign, p.195
 19th Flash, p.194
 19th Flash, p.195
 8th Letter, p.490
 19th Flash, p.189/193
 The Flashes/19th Flash, p.190
 Letters / Twenty – Second Letter – Second Topic- p.322
 The Words / Seventh Word – p.43
 Letters / Seventeenth Letter – p.100
 Letters / Twenty – Second Letter – p.321
 Rays, p.462/ 16th letter, p. 88/90
 Qur’an 59:90
 The Flashes / The Second Flash – p.27
 The Letters/24th Letter, p.338
 The Flashes / The Twenty-Fourth Flash – p.264
 The Flashes / The Thirteenth Flash – p.124
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